1966- Attended Treasure Valley Community College, Ontario, OR with a major in Police Science

1967 – Attended Four Federal Bureau of Investigation Seminars Concerning Law Enforcement

1968 – Attended two police academies sponsored by the Boise Police Department

1970 – Certified as a Law Enforcement Officer by Peace Officer Standards and Training Counsel for the State of Idaho

1966 – Received over 1,000 Hours of Classroom Training in the Area of Law Enforcement

1973 – Attended and graduated the Regional School by the United States Justice Department on Narcotic and Dangerous Drugs Law Enforcement

1974 – Attended Treasure Valley Community College – graduated in May, 1976 with an Associate of Science Degree in Law

1976 – Attended Boise State University, Boise, ID major in Political Science/Pre-Law with an emphasis on Public Administration and International Relations – accumulated 126 credits toward a Bachelor of Science Degree